by Kattryn Erryc Sayo
Ang Plaridel ay kilala bilang isang makasaysayan at masaganang bayan sa probinsya ng Bulacan. Isinilang ang katanyagan nito noong panahong nasa pamumuno ang bansang Pilipinas ng mga Kastila, pati na rin ng Amerikano. Ngunit saan nga ba nagmula ang pangalang Plaridel?
Balik-tanaw noong Panahon ng Kastila (1595)
Sinasabing bahagi ng Malolos ang Plaridel noon. Isa lamang itong payak at hindi pa maunlad na lupain na may gubat, matataas na damo at ilog.
Dahil hindi pa ganoon kakilala at kaunlad, kakaunti lamang ang naninirahan dito at halos magkakamag-anak pa. Ang bawat lider ng grupo sa bayang iyon ay tinatawag na “tandis”. Ang karaniwang lenggwahe naman ay Pampango, Pangasinan, Ilocano at Tagalog.
Bitbit ang layuning ikalat ang pananampalatayang Katolisismo, madalas dalawin ni Padre Bernardino De Leon ang lugar na iyon, kasama ang mga Agustinong misyonaryo. Gumagamit sila ng mga balsa bilang transportasyon.
Ayon sa naitalang kasysayan ng Parokya ng Santiago Apostol sa Plaridel (kilala rin bilang St. James the Apostle Parish Church), binigyang ngalan ng mga Agustinong pari ang payak na lupain at tinawag itong “Encomienda Bito”. Sa lugar ding iyon ay nagtayo sila ng kapilya sa ilalim ng Parokya ng Immaculada Concepcion.
‘Di naglaon, ang kapilya ay naitatag bilang isang parokya na pinangalanang Parroquia de Santiago Apostol, na nagmula sa pangalan ni Santiago, isa sa mga disipulo ni Hesus. Hanggang sa kasalukuyan matatag at buhay pa rin ang parokyang iyon at tinatawag ring St. James the Apostle Parish Church (Parokya ni Santiago Apostol).
Sa pagsasarili ng parokya ay nahiwalay na rin ang Encomienda Bito sa Malolos at naging isa nang ganap na bayan, taong 1602.
Maraming naging plano ang mga misyonaryo sa bayang iyon. Nagbalak silang bakantehin at linisin ang lupain upang palawakin ang komunidad at makapagpatayo pa ng mga nayon.
Noon din mismo ay nag-isip ng paraan ang mga mamamayan ng maliit na bayan tungkol sa planong iyon ng mga misyonaryo. Ang bawat “tandis” ay nakabuo ng plano upang ipagpatuloy ang ninanais ng mga Agustino. Nagtrabaho nang buong loob at hirap ang mga nakatira sa pook sa loob ng pitong mahabang taon.
Nang bumalik si Padre Bernardino ay namangha ito sapagkat maaliwalas na ang lugar, wala nang masyadong puno at matataas na damo. Nang tanungin ng pari kung sino ang dapat pasalamatan sa pagbabagong iyon, ang sagot ng mga Pampango ay “Quing wawa ding Tagalog po,” na nangangahulugang “Ang mga Tagalog po ang may gawa niyan”. Sa tuwing magtatanong ang mga pari, isasagot ng mga mamamayan ang “Buti Quing wawa Tagaolog, Quing wa.” Naniwala ang mga pari na karapat-dapat pasalamatan at parangalan ang mga Tagalog at noon din ay tinawag ang bayan na “Quingua”.
Ang Pagiging Plaridel
Katulad ng ibang komunidad, naging maunlad ang bayan ng Quingua. Dito naganap ang makasaysayang paghaharap ng mga Pilipino laban sa mga Amerikano, sa layuning ipagtanggol ang kauna-unahang republika ng Pilipinas at ng Asya. Kilala rin ito sa tawag na Battle of Quingua.
Ang pagpapalit ng pangalan ng bayan upang maging Plaridel ay pinasimulan ni Jose J. Mariano, ang alcalde mayor noong panahong iyon. Ang kaibigan niyang si Congressman Pedro Magsalin ang sumuporta at naging daan sa pagpapasa ng suhestiyon ng pagpapalit ng pangalan ng Quingua. Ang suhestiyon ay ipinasa ng Kongreso at naaprubahan ni Pangulong Manuel L. Quezon.
Noong ika-29 ng Disyembre taong 1936, sa kabila ng mga pyesta at pagdiriwang, ang pangalang Quingua ay pormal nang napalitan at tinawag na ang bayan na Plaridel, bilang parangal sa isa sa mga dakilang bayani ng Bulacan na si Marcelo H. del Pilar, kilala sa pangalang Plaridel.
by Kattryn Erryc Sayo
It is a dream that gave, gives and will give birth to a thousand more dreams.
Christian Natividad from Barangay Bungahan, the incumbent mayor of the city of Malolos in Bulacan, is one of the living proofs of the aforementioned statement.
The city mayor finished his elementary in Holy Spirit Academy, and was a high school graduate of Immaculate Conception School for Boys (ICSB), both in Malolos. In the grounds of the Univesity of Sto. Tomas, he took the course Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, and decided to take up law, finishing his first two years in the same university, where he was considered as his class’ top student/Dean’s Lister. He completed his degree in Law in the Far Eastern University. At present, he is enrolled for his Masteral degree in Criminology in the Philippine College of Criminology.
“”Yong law course ko sa UST nag-DDL ako no’n (Dean’s Lister). Pero no’ng graduating na (sa FEU), hindi na’ko nag-ta-top. Divided na ang time ko eh, tumatakbo na kong bokal no’n sa Malolos, tapos nagtuturo pa ‘ko sa mga college students. No’ng time na ‘yon wala na sakin ‘yong DL na ‘yon, ang aim ko no’n makapasa sa bar exams,” he said.
Natividad reveals he is a socially active citizen of Malolos, even during his youth years. He disclosed that public service is his preference and enthusiasm. As a matter of fact, he has been offering his public service, by political means, for a total of 13 years already. It was first felt when he became the Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) Chairman of their barangay in the year 1996. More opportunities to serve the Malolenos cropped up when he was elected as a municipal councilor in 1998, and as a city councilor when Malolos became a city in 2001. His leadership skills expanded as he ran and won as the provincial board member in 2007. In 2010 up to present, he is the mayor of Malolos City.
As a public servant, Natividad’s chief goal is to offer and sustain one of the basic needs of the people, which is education. In his term as the city mayor, he had already established a number of elementary and high schools (not less than 10) in different barangays, which he considers as the best and most successful project he pioneered as a mayor. He filed his Certificate of Candidacy for the same post for the 2013 elections, with the desire of the expansion and continuation of the schooling projects he had started.
Aside from the development of the education system in the city, Natividad also believes that another best deed he had done as a public servant is the accessible connection between the government and the citizens. According to him, a public servant must also go out and become socially attached to the people he is serving, not only in his office bossing around, giving orders to people.
As evidence of his excellent leadership, Natividad had already received various awards. He named some as Most Outstanding Councilor in Malolos, Most Outstanding Councilor in the First District, and Most Outstanding Councilor in Bulacan, against the more than 200 other councilors in the province.
As a public figure, Natividad isn’t new to hearing and receiving comments and criticisms. And though thrown with several commentaries and disapproval in line with the way he serves the people, he share he is open to such and welcomes them wholly.
“Open minded ako, I welcome criticism. Actually sa facebook, member ako ng isang group page do’n na ang ginagawa lang ay magkaroon ng sinister campaign against me, ‘yong tirahin ako nang tirahin kasi gusto kong malaman kung ano ‘yong mga criticism sa’kin. Kasi I welcome it eh. Bakit? I don’t take it as against me, I take it as constructive. Kasi tinutulungan pa nila akong itama ‘yong trabaho ko. Para rin naman ‘yon sa improvement ko, kailangan ko ng feed backing system sa taong pinagtutungkulan ko,” he said.
However, Natividad cannot erase the fact that he also receives criticisms that are purely hurtful and damaging.
“’Yong iba paninira lng, malicious imputations lang, ibig sabihin talagang designed lang para sirain ako. Wala na akong magagawa do’n eh, nginingitian ko nalang,” the mayor added.
As a Mayor-Father-Man
Despite the power and position he is currently holding of, the mayor imparts that he is still the same Christian Natividad that the people knew even before he became the city mayor. Just like the ordinary citizens, he led a simple and common life, with normal hobbies and interests.
“Simple lang ako. Hindi ako ‘yong tipo na nakalagay sa ulo ko ‘yong kapangyarihan ko. Nadagdagan lang ako ng pangalang ‘mayor’ pero wala rin eh, gano’n parin ako. Katulad ng mga ordinaryong mamamayan, may mga hobbies din ako. Naglalaro ng computer, nag-gigitara, nakikinig ng music. Simple lang talaga,” he shared.
In his role as a father, Natividad does not forget his responsibilities to his children. Even though he is too much occupied in dwelling on his service to the Malolenos, he makes sure he still has time for his two kids.
“Eto ang buhay ko araw-araw: Ako kasi paggising ko sa umaga labas na ‘ko 5-6am. 8am balik ako sa bahay harapin ko ang napakaraming tao. Wala akong asawa, pero may dalawang anak, parehong panganay. ‘Di bale nang mapintasan ako ng ibang tao ‘wag lang ‘yong mapintasan ako ng anak ko na hindi ko sila ipakilala o itinatago ko, inaalagaaan ko talaga sila. Tapos sa tanghali maghapon ‘yon, puro trabaho ako. Ang bahay namin bukas eh walang bakod, welcome ang mga tao,” mayor shared, laying out his everyday life.
Pursuant of Dreams and Aspirations
Having been left alone with just himself since his father died when he was only 17 or 18 years old with no inheritance at all, with a mother who cannot work, Natividad considers himself as a survivor. For other people, it could have been so difficult to keep up with life, but for Natividad who has undying passion of fulfilling his dreams, decided to pursue his career, that is now giving way to building more dreams.
“Kung huminto ako sa pangarap ko, ‘di nagtyaga makatapos ng college, ‘di nagtyagang magtapos ng law, tambay lang din ako ngayon. Baka problema ako ng nanay at tatay ko, problema ako ng barangay namin,” Natividad said.
That was the main reason why he is very much willing and forceful when it comes to the establishments of more schools; he wants the people especially the youth to continue on dreaming despite the difficulties that life has to offer.
As an enthusiastic dreamer and achiever himself, Mayor Christian Natividad left an inspirational message to students, “Payo ko sa mga students, pursue your dreams. Umakto ka at mag-aral, kasi very unfair ang competition sa labas. Education ang sarili mong tamang arsenal para maging competitive ka sa labas after schooling. At disiplina sa sarili, number 1 ‘yon,” he ended.
by Kattryn Erryc Sayo
Marahil ay marami ang naghahangad ng grandyosa at lubhang masaganang buhay. Pero may iilan pa ring mas hahangarin na magtamo ng simple ngunit payapa at madisplinang pamumuhay. Isa na rito si Lolo Fel, naniniwalang kailanman at anong panahon man nabuhay ang isang tao, hindi nito makakamit ang isang perpektong buhay.
Si Felino P. Sayo, tubong Sto. Cristo Pulilan Bulacan, ay isinilang sa mundo noong Pebrero 23, 1933. Hindi man nabiyayaan ng grandiyosang pamumuhay noong siya ay bata pa, payapa naman at maayos ang naging buhay ng kanyang pamilya.
Pagkamulat sa Karahasan
Bagamat bata pa, nasilayan na ni Lolo Fel kung paano pahirapan ng mga hapon ang mga taga-Bulacan. Tandang-tanda niya ang takot na nadama ng pamilya nang marinig na parating na ang mga hapon sa bansa.
Sariwa pa rin sa ala-ala niya kung paanong paraan ang ginagawa ng kanyang pamilya upang makaiwas sa karahasan ng mga dayuhan.
“Ang mga hapon kasi ay agresibo sa mga Pilipina ‘no. Ang ginagawa ng mga kapatid ko nagsusuot sila ng damit panlalaki para hindi sila ma-detect ng mga hapon. Dahil unang-una eh ang mga babae ay takot sa mga hapon. Sila ay ni-re-reyp o ginagahasa,” aniya.
Nagpasya ang pamilya ni Lolo Fel na panandalian munang makitira at magtago sa kakilala sa Bulihan, Bulacan, dala na rin ng takot.
“Nag-retreat kami sa Bulihan no’ng mabalitaan naming parating na ang mga hapon. Nakasakay kami sa kariton na hila-hila ng kalabaw, kasama ‘yong mga kapatid kong babae na nakasuot pa rin ng panlalaki at nakasumbrero. Do’n kami namuhay ng kung ilang araw,” sabi ni Lolo Fel.
“Do’n sa pinagtuluyan namin ng ilang araw, sa bukid na aming kinalalagyan, natatanaw namin ‘yong mga motor ng kinasasakyan ng mga hapon,” dagdag pa niya.
Sa kabila ng samu’t-saring karahasan at pagpapahirap na dinanas ng mga Pilipino sa kamay ng mga hapon, maswerteng nalagpasan ng pamilya ni Lolo Fel ang anumang dahas na maaaring sapitin noong mga panahong iyon.
Patuloy lamang ang buhay para kay Lolo Fel. Ngunit isa na namang karahasan ang kaniyang nasaksihan, na naganap noong siya ay 39-anyos at mayroon nang sariling pamilya. Ito ay ang panahon ng Martial Law, na ipinatupad ng dating Pangulong Ferdinand Marcos.
Alam niya kung paanong abusuhin ang mga tao kahit walang kasalanan. Aniya, bigla-bigla na lamang manghuhuli ang mga utusan ng administrasyon. Ni hindi man lamang hahayaang makapagpaliwanag ang mga arestado.
“Sa sandaling magkamali ka, Ipapaaresto ka agad sa sundalo, without further notice, wala nang pali-paliwanag pa,” aniya,
“Mahirap ang hindi sumunod sa batas. Kapag naabutan ka sa lansangan ng alas-onse eh dadakpin ka na, wala nang tanung-tanong pa,” dagdag ni Lolo Fel.
Ibinahagi rin niya kung gaano kabayolente and Martial Law. Aniya, mahirap tuligsain ang administrasyon ni Marcos, at kung mayroon mang maglalakas-loob kalabanin ang Pangulo ay ipaaaresto. Hindi rin makapagpahayag ng damdamin ang mga mamamayan sa takot na sila ay parusahan.
Sariwa pa rin sa kaniyang ala-ala kung paanong nagmistulang walang kaalam-alam ang mga tao sa mga pangyayari sa bansa, buhat ng pagbabawal ni Marcos sa media- wala raw mapapanood sa telebisyon, walang maririnig sa radyo.
Benepisyo ng Kahapon
Ayon kay Lolo Fel, mataas na antas ng disiplina ang idinulot ng mga karahasan noong mga nagdaang taon. Alam niya kung gaano kahirap ang tumaliwas sa batas ni Marcos o salita at utos ng mga hapon. Dala na rin ng takot kung bakit napipilitang sumunod ang mga Pilipino.
“Ang advantage no’n, may disiplina kasi takot ang mga tao. Noon ngang Martial Law may slogan si President Marcos na nagsasabing, ‘Sa ikauunlad ng bayan, Disiplina ang Kailangan’. Kaya’t ang mga tao noon eh takot sa pamahalaan. Walang rally, walang kung anu-anong gawaing laban sa pamahalaan,” ani Lolo Fel.
Bukod sa disiplina, ibinahagi rin niya kung paanong mas masagana ang buhay noon. Nabanggit niya kung gaano kamura ang mga bilihin, at kung gaano kalakas kumita ang kaniyang negosyo.
“Noon, malakas ang kita sa grocery namin. Umaabot pa nga sa Php70,000 kada araw. Eh ngayon dahil sa mga malls, humihina na ang kita. At saka mura lang ang mga bilihin noon, magaan lang ang pamumuhay at simple,” aniya.
“Sa panahon kasi ngayon, kahit kumayod ka nang kumayod, maliit lang ang kita, mahal pa ang bilihin,” dagdag niya.
Walang Perpektong Buhay
Bagamat disiplina at kasaganahan ang mga naging benepisyo ng nagdaang panahon, naniniwala si Lolo Fel na maswerte ang namumuhay sa kasalukuyang panahon dahil sa antas ng kalayaan na natatamasa.
Isa rin daw dapat ipagpasalamat ng mga taong hindi naabutan ang mga karahasan ng nakaraan ay ang pag-unlad sa teknolihiya na sadyang nakatutulong sa buhay ng tao.
Para kay Lolo Fel, pantay lamang ang hirap at ligayang hatid ng nakaraan at kasalukuyan. Maganda raw ang pamumuhay noon dahil sa disiplina at kasaganahan ng buhay sa kabila ng karahasan. Maganda pa rin naman daw ngayon dahil malaya at payapa ang tao kahit na may kahirapan ang pamumuhay.
Wala nga talagang perpektong buhay. At iyan ang pinatunayan ni Lolo Fel na nasilayan at naranasan na ang iba’t-ibang sarap at hirap ng buhay sa loob ng 79 na taon.
by Kattryn Erryc Sayo
Anywhere around the globe, racial discrimination and abuse has always been a continuous controversial issue in the society. Even with the presence of committees and organizations that are in line with the elimination of cultural and ethnic prejudice, the depletion of mistreatment, impartiality, and insult to the indigenous people still seems to be highly irresolvable. Aside from these, the ethnic tribes also suffer from lack of assistance from the government and the commission in charge of them.
The Dumagat group is one of the oldest existing ethnic tribes in the Philippines. They reside in the provinces of Rizal, Laguna, Quezon and Bulacan. Just like any other tribes in the country and in the whole world, they are not new to any form of discernment and deficiency from financial aids. But if Filipinos, especially the Tagalogs, would just understand their way of living, these stains of maltreatment can possibly be erased, and more forms of help can probably reach them.
In the six areas (namely sitios Iyak, Malot, Anoling, Maputi, Pinanganakan, Basyo) of barangay Kabayunan, Dona Remedios Trinidad (DRT) in the province of Bulacan inhabits a number of Dumagat families. The Dumagats are divided in to two types: the Remontados or Mestisos (half-Dumagat and half-Tagalog) and the Agtas (pure Dumagat).
Since the native lineage runs in their blood, the Dumagats in the province aren’t exempted from any form of racial discrimination and bullying. The fact that they do not receive any form of assistance from the government also adds to the downgrading problem.
One of the Mestisos in Sitio Maputi, namely Nila San Jose, 33, shares that poverty is the main problem in their tribe. Since their family transferred to DRT all the way from Montalban, Rizal three years ago, her family has not yet received any kind of support from the government.
“Wala pa kaming natanggap na kahit ano mula sa gobyerno,” she said.
Because of this, her husband, Antonio San Jose, 40, industriously works, making him see his family for only once every week. In one to two weeks, he earns Php500-900, which Nila said is not enough for their everyday needs, especially majority of her children are grade school pupils. Since their family is deprived, Nila and Antonio’s one out of five kids had to stop studying.
Whenever his husband is not around and no money is available for them to buy their daily necessities, their neighbors are kind enough to give them some.
Despite their deprivation from financial security, Nila shares they aren’t like other people who go out and beg money from other people. They avoid themselves to getting further criticisms and bullying.
“Hindi kami namamalimos. Ayaw namin na masabihan pa ng masama. Dahil ang akala ng mga tao kapag nanghihingi, sobra na,” shares Nila.
On the other hand, Brother Edwin Cardel, the missionary in charge with the Dumagats in Bulacan, revealed how the Dumagat kids get bullied by the Tagalogs.
“Nagkakaroon ng discrimination sa school. ‘Yong mga bata niloloko ng mga Tagalog,” he said.
Aside from this, the Dumagats are also believed to have been badly influenced by the Tagalogs.
“Ang mga Dumagat natuto nang manigarilyo at magnakaw dahil sa mga Tagalong. Dati nag-iiwan lang sila ng gamit sa bahay nila ng walang pangambang may mawawalang gamit, eh ngayon iba na,” added Brother Cardel.
With this, we can sum up how difficult survival is for the Dumagats especially in their condition wherein they get bullied and judged, and wherein they lacked financial security. If the Tagalogs would just open their eyes to the reality that the Dumagat people aren’t much different from what and who they are, then maybe racial prejudice can be prevented and may give way to more forms of help not only from the government.
by Dahren Sta. Ana
Bulacan is one of the places in the Philippines where ethnic groups still exist- the Dumagat tribe. An estimate of 745 families of this indigenous group reside in the towns of Norzagaray, San Jose del Monte and Donya Remedios Trinidad (DRT).
According to Brother Edwin Cardel, the Provincial Dumagat Administrator, the group of Dumagat originally lives in Sierra Madre. But since the mountains are continually being devastated through illegal logging, mining, deforestation and ethanol project, the Dumagats decided to leave the place and find a stable living condition.
There are 20 settlements, 20 chieftains and 20 Tribal Health Workers in those three towns of Bulacan where the Dumagats live. These Tribal health workers are assigned to help the Dumagat patients if they need medical assistance. In addition, Brother Edwin said the Chieftain and Tribal Health workers are given a thousand pesos per month as allowance.
Despite the benefits the Dumagats receive, the fact that problems still come their way cannot be erased.
Poverty is the major problem that the Dumagat group faces. Families can rarely afford to buy food that is sufficient for a day.
“Kapag walang kita 'yong asawa ko saging na lang kinakain namin, nangunguha na lang kami diyan pati 'yong ibang gulay. 'Yong mga bata nagtitiis na lang din, wala naman kami magagawa kasi walang pera eh,” said Lablyn Hilpus, 20-year-old Dumagat and a mother of two.
Second problem is the supply of electricity. The Dumagats just use lamp or flash light that their municipality gives them.
“Wala rin kaming kuryente. Mahirap kapag gabi na kasi madilim na talaga dito sa labas namin. Gasera lang ang gamit namin dati tapos 'yong munisipyo namigay ng flash light, may radio rin diyan,” said Analyn.
Meanwhile, according to Brother Edwin, one of the reasons why the local government does not want to have an access of electricity in the part along the Angat Dam is that there’s a possibility that the people (outsiders) who will live there will pollute the river.
Poor shelter and housing is another problem of the Dumagats. If there is a typhoon, they are worried for their houses since those were only built using light materials like bamboo and pulpy leaf of plants like the coconut. Though they do not experience flood, they are afraid that their houses will be blown by strong winds.
Furthermore, the land that the houses of the Dumagats were built is under the possession of the government. The government plans for a rehabilitation along the Angat river, and this leaves no other choice for the residents rather than to leave their homes.
Next is the schooling adversities. Since poverty is the major problem, the education of the Dumagats is severely affected. With no money, there is no education. Often times a Dumagat had to stop studying because of financial instability.
Source of Livelihood
Several of the Dumagats work as fisherman like the parents of Analyn. They leave the house at night and will come back in the morning of the following day.
Brigido Salongga and his eldest son work as carriers of fish. According to him, one cooler of fish costs ten pesos. Frequently, they manage to carry 40 to 50 coolers of fish everyday, but the money that has been paid to them will be divided to five or more persons. Only 50 to 100 pesos will be taken home a day.
Furthermore, they also sell Rattan and also have mini sari-sari store. But Salongga admits it is still not enough to sustain the needs of his family.
Meanwhile, Rosalya Calderon, 47, and a resident of Angat for almost 20 years, works as scavenger of garbage. Sometimes she also sells rattan and bamboo to earn money to buy food. Since her husband cannot work due to certain illness, she considers herself as the breadwinner of their family, which is very hard since she has eight children.
To sum it all up, the Dumagats commonly work as fisherman, and rattan and bamboo sellers. Since they were not able to finish their studies, it is very hard and almost impossible for them to find a job that can give them adequate salary.
Though the government gives the Dumagat tribe an access in system and program in Angat, the children have very limited opportunities for basic education. Most of them cannot go to school but instead work in order contribute to the family income and ration. This is yet another indication of how poverty affects access to basic needs. Though knowledge is one of the very important thing that a person should have, poverty obstructs their way to gain knowledge.
But now, education for the minority group is one of the priorities of the local government though it is still on process. According to Brother Edwin, they have a formal and non-formal education. The non-formal education allows children to be taught basics like writing and reading even under trees or in the mountains.
A school was donated by the Chinese people as their contribution to the Dumagats, wherein about 70 Dumagat chilldren are currently enrolled. The Department of Education (DepEd) also built elementary schools for the Dumagat that is located in DRT- the Sitio Pinaganakan Primary School and Sitio Basyo Day Care.
Also, through the help of Provincial Governor Wilhelmino Sy-Alvarado in his scholarship program, 10 out of 20 Dumagats have been given a chance to enroll in universities, having passed in the scholarship examination.
Usually, the Dumagat who enrolls in college only get a 2-year course. But there is a Dumagat who finished educational course for four years. At present, there are about six Dumagats enrolled in Bulacan Polytechnic College (BPC) and one in Bulacan State University (BSU).
Before, the Dumagats do not have a religion but they believe in spirit wherein they called it as “Makedetet” (tantamount to Jesus in Roman Catholicism). They do not go to church, instead they go to a sacred place wherein they believe that the spirit of Makedetet stays. The Mount Irit that is the navel of the Sierra Madre, is considered as the place of worship for the Dumagats.
But then, as time goes by, this culture of Dumagat gradually disappeared due to many religions that came in their place like Born Again, Seven Day Adventist, Hecuba, and Mormons that lead them to have a different religions and beliefs.
Some of them embraced the religion of Seven Day Adventives wherein they are not allowed to eat pork, catfish, shrimps and snail. Through this many religions that came in the life of the Dumagat, Brother Edwin Cardel considered it as a disadvantage for the reason that they lose their unity.
Access to Government
The Local government gave the Dumagat group a right to a proper health care. Anyone who needs medical assistance can directly go to Mrs. Norma, who is in charge in the health of the Dumagat people, financially speaking.
The Local government also gave some goods for the Dumagat people. According to Brigido Salongga, every year they receive a kilo of rice, can goods and other food from the government. They also gave them flash light and lamp that serve as their light at night since they do not have an access to electricity. Another was radio that serves as their television.
Moreover, the present administration has a program entitled “Pantawid Pamilya Program” wherein several Dumagats were given goods.